Menu costs, the price gap distribution and monetary non-neutrality: The role of financial constraints


We study how credit constraints and the frequency of price adjustment interact. We show that a working capital constraint increases the kurtosis of the price change distribution and generates small and large price changes to co-exist in a menu cost model. Our model is consistent with firm-level evidence for Germany that relates financial constraints to the frequency and direction of price changes. Financial frictions change the propagation of aggregate nominal shocks: The frequency of price adjustments fluctuates and the average price-adjustment size falls weakening the selection effect. Monetary non-neutrality only increases when the overall level of price adjustment falls.